Huinay Foundation
Huinay Scientific Field Station

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
Facultad de Recursos Naturales
Escuela de Ciencias del Mar
Avda. Brasil 2950

Valparaíso, Chile

Postal Address

Casilla 1150
Puerto Montt

E-mail address:
Phone: 0056-65-2280368 (Puerto Montt), 0056-65-2972147 (Huinay)
Fax: 0056-65-2280368                                                                                                    


We only conserve what we love,
we only love what we understand, 
we only understand what we are taught.

High impact economic activities are expanding into the most remote areas of Chilean Patagonia

Travelling exhibition on the marine life of Chilean Patagonia; LOOK AT THIS 8 minute video on Patagonian marine biodiversity   

Present position: (since Oct. 2003): Director of Huinay Scientific Field Station (www.huinay.cl)

Archipielago Madre de Dios (2013)

A visit from the deep: Gorgonocephalus chilensis  

Summary of the work:

Dr. Vreni Häussermann is driven by a determination to explore and protect the marine life of Chilean Patagonia. Since 1998, when she first travelled to this region, one of the last real wildernesses on earth, she fell in love with these wild and pristine landscapes where the ocean meet the mountains covered in temperate rainforests, where glaciers calf in lakes and into the ocean. Vreni Häussermann is stationed at Huinay Scientific Field Station in Northern Patagonia in Comau Fjord, and regularly carries out SCUBA diving expeditions to the most remote and inaccessible areas of Chilean Patagonia with the aim to reveal its secrets and to gather scientific knowledge which is necessary for a sustainable development of the region and for preservation of this unique and fragile natural heritage. At the moment, she is cooperating with the ministry of environment and different NGOs to develop a proposal for a network of marine protected areas for Chilean Patagonia. Her most recent project will bring her to several key sites where she will study the life of the twilight zone down to 500 m depth using a remotely operated vehicle.

Chilean Patagonia is a hotspot of marine biodiversity. Its coastline of fjords, channels and islands hosts a large variety of different habitats and has an extension of 80.000km; this would span twice around the world. Besides numerous marine mammals, many of these endangered, it hosts thousands of invertebrates and fish species. In 2003, together with her husband and colleague Günter Försterra, Vreni Häussermann first described cold-water corals from Chilean Patagonia. These coral banks thrive in the shallow waters of fjords which have a pH that was predicted for the world’s oceans for the year 2100. This fact enables us to use the fjords as natural laboratory to study the effects of global chance and to investigate how corals deal with an acidified ocean.  Economic pressure on the area through anthropogenic activities such as intense salmon farming has been rising strongly in the last three decades. Marine biodiversity is degrading in an alarming speed, more and more mass mortalities have been observed in the waters of Chilean Patagonia since 2015. Without baseline information on the communities and ongoing processes, a sustainable development in the region is not possible. Until we have these data, we need to take a precautionary approach and set enough areas under protection as back-up against management areas.

Dr. Häussermann holds a PhD from the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany. She was a visiting fellow at the University of Concepcion (1994-1995) and at the University of Kansas (1999-2000). At the moment she is a visiting professor at the Catholic University of Valparaiso, Chile. In 2011, she was named a PEW Fellow in Marine Conservation, the world’s pre-eminent award in that field.  In 2014, she won the "Award to the Excellence in Science" from the Catholic University of Valparaiso. Her teams research and continuous work to investigate the marine life of Chilean Patagonia have earned Dr.  Häussermann in 2016 the Rolex Award for Enterprise.

In 2006, she submitted a proposal to protect the unique cold-water coral banks of the fjords Comau and Renihue. Since 2011, within her PEW project, in cooperation with the ministry of environment and several NGOs, she is working on a MARXAN analysis to propose a network of marine protected areas for Chilean Patagonia. She also advises the government and IUCN on marine issues of Chilean Patagonia,

Dr. Häussermann has written more than 60 scientific papers. She published the first taxonomic field guide for the marine life a Chilean Patagonia, a 1000 page book that has become a standard work for Chile and the region. Her work has been documented in several television documentaries and other media.

Research Interests:


Research Projects:

 Previous projects

May 2004:             Defense of the PhD Project, grade of PhD thesis and defense: "summa cum laude"
Nov. 02-Jan. 04:    Visiting scientist at the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACH)  
Sept. 00-Oct. 02:   Ph.D. project at the Zoologische Staatssammlung München (ZSM)
Aug. 99-Aug. 00:   Visiting scholar in the laboratory of Dr. Daphne Fautin at the University of Kansas/USA
Aug. 99-Jan. 04:    PhD project "A novel approach for sampling and description of non-scleractinian Hexacorallia
                              exemplified by Chilean sea anemones"
Oct. 98:                 Diploma (with honours) in biology at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität; München; (LMU),
                             Germany; grade[1] 1.0 obtaining "first class honors"  
Oct. 97-Oct. 98:    Diploma thesis "Beiträge zur Aktinienfauna Chiles (Cnidaria: Anthozoa)"
                             "Contributions to the sea anemone fauna of Chile (Cnidaria: Anthozoa)"
Feb. 97-Sept. 97:   Diploma examinations (ecology, zoology/systematics, botany/systematics, soil science)
Aug. 94-Oct. 95:    One year of integrated studies in marine biology at the Universidad de Concepción / Chile,
                              with emphasis on marine invertebrates
Nov. 92-Oct. 97:   Hauptstudium Biologie (graduate studies of biology) at the LMU Munich
Nov. 92:                Vordiplom (graduation); subjects: biology, chemistry, physics;
grade1 1.2  
Oct.90-Nov.92:     Grundstudium Biologie (undergraduate studies of biology) at the LMU Munich
April 90-June 90:   Practical training in agriculture and landscape-gardening
Oct. 89 - Mar. 90: Studies of pharmacy at the LMU Munich
June 89:                 Abitur (University entrance qualification):
grade1 1.4  

[1] German Grading System: 1.0 (best) – 6.0 (worst)

PhD Project:
Aug. 99-Jan. 04, Defence: May 2004: "A novel approach for sampling and description of non-scleractinian Hexacorallia exemplified by Chilean sea anemones"

Advisor: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Haszprunar at Zoologische Staatssammlung München (ZSM), Germany;
Special subject adviser: Dr. Karin Riemann, Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research; Bremerhaven/Germany (AWI), PD Dr. Wolfgang Schäfer, Univesity Erlangen
Support in Chile: Dr. Wolfgang Stotz Uslar; Universidad Católica del Norte, Sede Coquimbo

The complete PhD thesis can be downloaded as pdf file from the website of the Ludwigs-Maximilians-University Munich.

In this project, novel methods and techniques accompanied by conventional procedures are applied to set a new standard for the collection, description and re-description of soft-bodied hexacorals. High abundance and diversity, fragmentary and confusing taxonomy, interesting zoogeography and the urgent need for data for ecological studies made Chilean sea anemones a perfect target group for the novel approach. Applying this approach, some selected species were described resp. re-described (Anemonia alicemartinae, Oulactis concinnata, Phymactis papillosa, Phymanthea pluvia, Actinostola chilensis). In the published papers, the genera with marginal ruff and these with non-adhesive vesicles on the colum as well as the South American Actinostola species were revised. The first colonial anemone Cereus herpetodes was reported. Finally a protocol for sampling, preservation and examination of soft-bodied hexacorals was published.

  Thesis Research:
Oct. 97-Oct. 98: "Beiträge zur Aktinienfauna Chiles (Cnidaria: Anthozoa)", "Contributions to the sea anemone fauna of Chile (Cnidaria: Anthozoa)"

Overwiew over the 11 most common Actiniidae in shallow water - sampled during a 6 months expedition along the Chilean coast, together with Dipl. Biol. Günter Försterra

Adviser: Dr. Gerhard Haszprunar, ZSM / LMU
Additional advisers: Dr. Karin Riemann, AWI Bremerhaven; Dr. Hajo Schmidt, Universität Heidelberg 

Relevant Working experience: 

Actinostola chilensis between gorgonians (Primnoella sp.), 25 m, Lenca, Seno de Reloncaví; South Chile

Aerial view of the fjords Comau (left) and Reñihue (right)  


Awards and Scholarships:
A) Awards:

B) Main scholarships:

 C) Logistic support, invitations

Special Skills :
Languages:  German (native language)
                   English, Spanish, French (fluently)
Diving:         Rescue Diver (PADI) and CMAS Gold/*** (license for and experience in leading dive groups), Chilean diving license
Computer applications: Windows, MS Word, Power Point, Excel, Front Page, Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, Endnote, Internet (basic HTML skills)

Relevant recent media presence:

Sea lions often join the divers

The deep-water sea anemones Actinostola chilensis can be found between 15 and 2000 m depth  

List of publications:

  1. Häussermann, V. and Försterra, G. (2001): A new species of sea anemone from Chile, Anemonia alicemartinae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). An invader or an indicator for environmental change in shallow water?; Organisms Diversity & Evolution 1(3): 211-224; abstract and colour pictures; pdf (Copyright Urban & Fischer Verlag 2001)
  2. Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (2003): First evidence for coloniality in sea anemones; Marine Ecology Progress Series 257: 291-294; one colony of Cereus herpetodes and a rock covered with colonies of this species; pdf (copyright Inter-Research 2003)
  3. Häussermann, V. (2003): Redesription of Oulactis concinnata (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa), an actiniid sea anemone from Chile and Perú with special fighting tentacles; with a preliminary revision of the genera with a “frond-like” marginal ruff´; Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 345: 173-208; pdf (copyright Museum Naturalis 2003)
  4. Försterra, G. & Häussermann, V. (2003): First report on large scleractinian (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) accumulations in cold-temperate shallow water of south Chilean fjords; Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 345: 117-128; for pictures look at the website of Günter Försterra; pdf (copyright Museum Naturalis, 2003)
  5. Häussermann, V.(2004): Identification and taxonomy of soft-bodied hexacorals exemplified by Chilean sea anemones; including guidelines for sampling, preservation and examination; Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 84: 931-936; pdf (copyright Cambridge University Press)
  6. Häussermann, V.(2004): Redescription of Phymactis papillosa (Lesson, 1830) and Phymanthea pluvia (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa), two actiniid sea anemones from the south east Pacific with a discussion of the genera Phymactis, Bunodosoma and Phymanthea; Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 78: 345-381; pdf (copyright Museum Naturalis)
  7. Häussermann, V. (2004): The sea anemone genus Actinostola Verrill, 1883: variability and utility of traditional taxonomic features; and a re-description of Actinostola chilensis McMurrich, 1904; Polar Biology 28: 26-38 (Erratum 2005: 28: 338-350); pdf; pdf Erratum (copyright Springer Verlag)
  8. Cairns, S., V. Häussermann and G. Försterra (2005). A review of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) of Chile, with the description of two new species; Zootaxa 1018: 14-46; pdf (copyright Magnolia Press)
  9. Häussermann, V. and Försterra, G.(2005): Distribution patterns of Chilean shallow-water sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia); with a discussion of the taxonomic and zoogeographic relationships between the actinofauna of the South East Pacific, the South West Atlantic and Antarctica; Pages 91-102 in W. E. Arntz, G. A. Lovrich and S. Thatje, eds. The Magellan-Antarctic connection: links and frontiers at high southern latitudes. Scientia Marina 69 (Suppl. 2); pdf (copyright).
  10. Michael Schrödl, María-Angélica Alarcón, Luis R. Bedriñana, Francisco J. Bravo, Carlos M. Bustamante, Rosana Carvalho, Günther Försterra, Carlos Gallardo, Verena Häussermann, Andrea Salmen (2005): Nudipleura (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) from the southern Chilean Comau Fjord, with redescription of Polycera priva Marcus, 1959; Vita Malacologica 3: 23-33.; pdf (copyright).
  11. van Ofwegen, L., Häussermann, V. and Försterra, G. (2006): A new genus of soft coral (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea: Clavulariidae) from Chile. Zootaxa 1219: 47-57; pdf (copyright Magnolia press).
  12. Schwabe, E., Försterra, G., Häussermann, V., Alarcón, M.-A. and Schrödl, M. (2006): Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the southern Chilean Comau Fjord, with reinstatement of Tonicia calbucensis Plate, 1897. Zootaxa 1341: 1-27; pdf (copyright Magnolia Press).
  13. Melzer, Roland R., Schrödl, Michael, Häussermann, Verena, Försterra, Günter, and Montoya Bravo, Maria Fernanda (2006): Pycnogonids on cnidarians at Comau fjord, Southern Chile: a report on 2005 SCUBA collections. Spixiana 29: 237-242; pdf.
  14. Häussermann, Verena (2006): Biodiversity of Chilean sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): distribution patterns and biogeographic implications; including new records for the fjord region. Investigaciones Marinas; pdf.
  15. Häussermann, Verena & Günter Försterra (2007). Extraordinary abundance of hydrocorals (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae) in shallow water of the Patagonian fjord region. Polar Biology 30 (4): 487-492; pdf (copyright Springer) (online first: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00300-006-0207-5).
  16. Galea, Horia, Häussermann, Verena and Günter Försterra (2007): Hydrozoa, fjord Comau, Chile. Check list 3(2): 159-167; pdf.
  17. van Ofwegen, Leen, Häussermann, Verena & Günter Försterra (2007): The genus Alcyonium (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea: Alcyoniidae) in Chile. Zootaxa 1607: 1-19; pdf.
  18. Galea, Horia, Häussermann, Verena and Försterra, Günter (2007): Cnidaria, Hydrozoa: First records, local and extended world distribution, region of south-Chilean fjords. Check List 3(4): 308-320; pdf.
  19. Galea, Horia, Försterra, Günter, and Häussermann, Verena (2007): Additions to the hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the fjords region of southern Chile. Zootaxa 1650: 55-68.; pdf.
  20. Häussermann, V. and G. Försterra. 2007. Large assemblages of cold-water corals in Chile: a summary of recent findings and potential impacts. Pages 195­-207 in George R. Y. and S. D. Cairns, eds. Conservation and adaptive management of seamount and deep-sea coral ecosystems. Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami. 324 p; pdf.
  21. Försterra, Günter & Verena Häussermann (2008): Unusual symbiotic relationships between microendolithic phototrophic organisms and azooxanthellate Scleractinia from Chilean fjords. Marine Ecology Progress Series 370: 121-125; pdf.
  22. Häussermann, Verena and Försterra, Günter (2008): A new species of sea anemone from the Chilean fjord region, Paraisanthus fabiani (Actiniaria: Isanthidae), with a discussion of the family Isanthidae Carlgren, 1938. Zootaxa 1897: 27-42; pdf.
  23. Försterra, Günter, Häussermann, Verena & Carsten Lüter (2008): Mass occurrences of the recent brachiopod Magellania venosa (Terebratellidae) in the fjords Comau and Reñihue, Chile. Marine Ecology 29: 342-347; pdf.
  24. Sinniger, Frederik and Häussermann, Vreni (2009): Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Zoanthidae) from shallow water of the southern Chilean fjord region with the description of a new genus and two new species. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 9: 23-36; pdf.
  25. Galea, Horia, Häussermann, Verena, and Försterra, Günter (2009): New additions to the hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the fjord region of southern Chile. Zootaxa 2019: 1-28; pdf.
  26. Häussermann, Verena, Michael Dawson and Günter Försterra (2009): First record of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae), for Chile. Spixiana 32 (1): 3-7; pdf
  27. Lagger, Cristián, Tatián, Marcos, Häussermann, Vreni and Försterra, Günter (2009): Ascidians (Chordata; Ascidiacea) from the southern Chilean Comau Fjord. Spixiana 32 (2): 173-185; pdf.
  28. Lauretta Daniel, Häussermann Verena & Penchaszadeh Pablo: Re-description of Parabunodactis imperfecta (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Patagonian Argentinean coast (2009). Spixiana 32 (2):167-172; pdf.
  29. E. Yáñez, C. Silva, R. Vega, F. Espíndola, L. Álvarez, N. Silva, S. Palma, S. Salinas, E. Menschel, V. Häussermann, D. Soto & N. Ramírez (2009): Seamounts in the southeastern Pacific Ocean and biodiversity on Juan Fernandez seamounts, Chile. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 37(3): 555 – 570; pdf. 
  30. Mayr, Christoph C., Günter Försterra, Verena Häussermann, Anja Wunderlich, Jürke Grau (2011): Stable isotope variability in a Chilean fjord food web: implications for N- and C-cycles. Marine Ecology Progress Series 428: 89-104.
  31. Karen J Miller, Ashley A. Rowden, Alan Williams, Vreni Häussermann (2011): Out of their depth? Isolated deep populations of the cosmopolitan coral Desmophyllum dianthus may be highly vulnerable to environmental change. PLoS ONE 6(5): e19004. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019004.
  32. Rodríguez, Estefanía, Marcos Barbeitos, Marymegan Daly, Luciana C. Gusmão & Verena Häussermann (2012). Towards a natural classification: Phylogeny of acontiate sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria). Cladistics 1: 1-18.
  33. Cañete, Juan I. & Häussermann, Verena (2012): Colonial life under the Humboldt Current System: deep-sea corals from O´Higgins I seamount. Latin American Journal Aquatic Research 40 (2): 467-472.
  34. Försterra, Günter, and Häussermann, Verena (2012): Report on sustained southern blue whales sightings (Balaenoptera musculus Linnaeus, 1758) in a narrow fjord during autumn-winter in southern Chile. Spixiana 35 (2): 237-245.
  35. Häussermann, Vreni, Günter Försterra, and Emma Plotnek (2012): Sightings of marine mammals and birds in the Comau fjord, Northern Patagonia, between 2003 and mid 2012. Spixiana 35 (2): 247-262.
  36. Iriarte, J.L., S. Pantoja, H.E. González, G. Silva, H. Paves, P. Labbé, L. Rebolledo, M. Van Ardelan & V. Häussermann (2013): Assessing the micro-phytoplankton response to nitrate in Comau Fjord (42°S) in Patagonia (Chile), using a microcosms approach. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 185 (5): 5055-70. DOI 10.1007/s10661-012-2925-1.
  37. Jantzen C, Häussermann V, Försterra G, Laudien J, Ardelan M, Maier S, Richter C (2013): Occurrence of a cold-water coral along natural pH gradients (Patagonia, Chile). Marine Biology 160 (10): 2597-2607. DOI 10.1007/s00227-013-2254-0.
  38. Häussermann, Verena, Acevedo, Jorge, Försterra, Günter, Marcotte, Michelle, and Aguayo-Lobo, Anelio (2013): Killer whales in Chilean Patagonia: Population, behavioural observations, and individual identifications. Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia 48 (1): 73-85.
  39. Jantzen, Carin, Jürgen Laudien, Stefanie Sokol, Günter Försterra, Verena Häussermann, Franziska Kupprat, Claudio Richter (2013) In situ short-term growth rates of a cold-water coral. Marine and Freshwater Research 64 (7): 631-641. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF12200.
  40. Hassenrück, Christiane, Carin Jantzen, Günter Försterra & Verena Häussermann (2013): Growth rates of Desmophyllum dianthus: effect of association with endolithic algae. Marine Biology. DOI:10.1007/s00227-013-2281-x.
  41. Lauretta, Daniel, Verena Häusserman, Mercer R. Brugler, Estefania Rodriguez (2013): Isoparactis fionae sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Southern Patagonia with a discussion of the family Isanthidae. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 14 (1) 31-42. DOI 10.1007/s13127-013-0149-z.
  42. Estefania Rodriguez, Marisol Mendoza, Verena Haussermann (2013): New records and redescription of Halcurias pilatus McMurrich, 1893 and Halcurias mcmurrichi Uchida, 2004 (Actiniaria, Endocoelantheae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 1-12. DOI:10.1017/S0025315413000775.
  43. Försterra, Günter, Vreni Häussermann, Roland R. Melzer & Andrea Weis (2013): A deep water pycnogonid close to the beach: Colossendeis macerrima Hoek, 1881 spotted at 18 m in the Chilean fjords. Spixiana 36 (1): 20.
  44. Sebastian Baumgarten, Jürgen Laudien, Carin Jantzen, Verena Häussermann, Günter Försterra (2013): Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region. Marine Biology. DOI: 10.1111/maec.12097.
  45. Häussermann Vreni, Günter Försterra, Roland R. Melzer and Roland Meyer (2013): Gradual changes of benthic biodiversity in Comau fjord, Chilean Patagonia – lateral observations over a decade of taxonomic research. Spixiana 36 (2): 161-171.
  46. Spano Carlos A., Nicolás Rozbaczylo, Vreni Häussermann y Ricardo Bravo (2013): Re-description of the actiniid species Anthopleura hermaphroditica and Bunodactis hermaphroditica (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chile. Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia (Valparaiso) 48 (3): 521-534.
  47. Häussermann V & Försterra G (2014): Vast reef-like accumulation of the hydrocoral Errina antarctica (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) wiped out in Central Patagonia. Coral Reefs 33 (1): 29. DOI 10.1007/s00338-013-1088-z
  48. Försterra, Günter, Vreni Häussermann, Jürgen Laudien, Carin Jantzen, Javier Sellanes and Praxedes Muñoz (2014): Mass die off of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus in the Chilean Patagonian Fjord Region. Bulletin of Marine Science 90 (3): 895-899. http://dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2013.1064.
  49. Christoph Mayr, Lorena Rebolledo, Katharina Schulte, Astrid Schuster, Bernd Zolitschka, Günter Försterra, Verena Häussermann (2014: Responses of nitrogen and carbon deposition rates in Comau Fjord (42°S, Southern Chile) to natural and anthropogenic impacts during the last century. Continental and Shelf Research 78: 29-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2014.02.004
  50. Rodrıguez E, Barbeitos MS, Brugler MR, Crowley LM, Grajales A, Gusmao L, Haussermann V, Reft A, Daly M (2014) Hidden among Sea Anemones: The First Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Reveals a Novel Group of Hexacorals. PLoS ONE 9(5): e96998. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096998.
  51. Häussermann, Verena & Estefanía Rodríguez (2014): A new species of isanthid anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia, Anthoparactis fossii n. gen. et sp. Helgoland Marine Research. DOI 10.1007/s10152-014-0399-y
  52. Macaya, E., Riosmena-Rodríguez, R., Melzer, R., Meyer, R., Försterra,G., Häussermann, V. (2014): Rhodolith beds in the South-East Pacific. Marine Biodiversity. DOI 10.1007/s12526-014-0254-z
  53. Galea HR, D Schories, G Försterra & V Häussermann (2014): New species and new records of hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from Chile. Zootaxa 3852 (1): 001-050.
  54. Breedy, O., Cairns, S. and Häussermann, V. (2015): A new alcyonian octocoral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia) from Chilean fjords. Zootaxa 3919 (2): 327-334.
  55. Häussermann V & G Försterra (2015): In situ broadcast spawning of Corynactis sp.in Chilean Patagonia. Coral Reefs 34:119. DOI 10.1007/s00338-014-1256-9.
  56. Krapp-Schickel, T, Häussermann, V & Vader W (2015): A new Stenothoe species (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Stenothoidae) living on Boloceropsis platei (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia. Helgoland Marine Research 69: 213-220
    DOI 10.1007/s10152-015-0430-y.
  57. Häussermann, V., Spano, C. Thiel, M. and Lohrmann, K. (2015): First record of the sea anemone Diadumene lineata (Verrill, 1869) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Chilean coast. Spixiana 38 (1): 39-42.
  58. Schlatter, R., Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (2015): Some like it hot – hummingbirds making use of hotsprings in Chilean Patagonia (Neornithes, Apodiformes, Trochilidae). Spixiana 38 (1): 48.
  59. Jackson DJ., K Mann, V Häussermann, M Schillhabel, C Lüter, E Griesshaber, W Schmahl, G Wörheide (2015): The Magellania venosa biomineralizing proteome: a window into brachiopod shell evolution. Genome Biology and Evolution 7 (5): 1349-1362.
  60. Outeiro L, F Viddi, R Hucke-Gaete, G Försterra, V Häussermann, H Oyarzo, K Kosiel, S Villasante (2015): Using ecosystem services mapping for marine spatial planning in Southern Chile under scenario assessment. Ecosystem Services 16: 341-353.
  61. Häussermann V, G Försterra & S Cairns (2016): New record of the primnoid gorgonian /Primnoella delicatissima/ Kükenthal, 1909 for Chilean waters
  62. Reyes P, V Häussermann & Günter Försterra (2016): New Zealand Trumpeter re-discovered in Patagonian fjords after more than 100 years.
  63. Häussermann V, G Försterra & J Laudien (in press) Book chapter Animal forests in the Chilean fiord region: Discoveries and perspectives in shallow and deep waters. In: Marine Animal Forests (eds.Sergio Rossi, Lorenzo Bramanti, Andrea Gori and Covadonga Orejas)

Book chapters

  1. Häussermann, V. (2003): Ordnung Ceriantharia (Zylinderrosen). In: Hofrichter, R. (Hrsg.), Das Mittelmeer, Fauna, Flora, Ökologie, Band II/1, Bestimmungsführer, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin, 450-453
  2. Häussermann, V. (2003): Ordnung Actiniaria (Seeanemonen, Aktinien). In: Hofrichter, R. (Hrsg.), Das Mittelmeer, Fauna, Flora, Ökologie, Band II/1, Bestimmungsführer, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin 2003, 476-499
  3. Häussermann, V. (2003): Ordnung Corallimorpharia (Korallenanemonen).
    In: Hofrichter, R. (Hrsg.), Das Mittelmeer, Fauna, Flora, Ökologie, Band II/1, Bestimmungsführer, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin 2003, 499-501
  4. Häussermann, V. (2003): Ordnung Zoantharia (= Zoanthiniaria, Zoanthidae) (Krustenanemonen). In: Hofrichter, R. (Hrsg.), Das Mittelmeer, Fauna, Flora, Ökologie, Band II/1, Bestimmungsführer,  Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin 2003, 501-505
  5. Försterra, G., Beuck, L., Häussermann, V. & Freiwald, A. (2005): Shallow water Desmophyllum dianthus (Scleractinia) from Chile: characteristics of the biocenoses, the bioeroding community, heterotrophic interactions and (palaeo)-bathymetrical implications. In: Freiwald, A., Roberts, J. M. (eds.): Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 937-977; pdf (copyright Springer Verlag).
  6. Häussermann, V. (2009)*: Protocol for sampling and preservation of marine organisms, p. 88-92. In: Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (eds.): Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia, Nature in Focus, Puerto Montt, 1000 pp.
  7. Häussermann, V. (2009)*: Cnidaria–Cnidarians, p. 172-173. In: Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (eds.): Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia, Nature in Focus, Puerto Montt, 1000 pp.
  8. Häussermann, V. & van Ofwegen, L. (2009)*: Anthozoa–Anthozoans, p. 174-176. In: Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (eds.): Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia, Nature in Focus, Puerto Montt, 1000 pp.
  9. Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (2009)*: Actiniaria–Sea Anemones, p. 215-266. In: Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (eds.): Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia, Nature in Focus, Puerto Montt, 1000 pp.
  10. Häussermann, V. (2009)*: Corallimorpharia–Jewel Anemones, p. 267-272. In: Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (eds.): Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia, Nature in Focus, Puerto Montt, 1000 pp.
  11. Försterra, G. & Häussermann, V. (2009)*: Scleractinia–Stony Corals, p. 273-282. In: Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (eds.): Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia, Nature in Focus, Puerto Montt, 1000 pp.
  12. Sinniger, F., Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (2009)*: Zoantharia–Zoanthids, p. 283-290. In: Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (eds.): Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia, Nature in Focus, Puerto Montt, 1000 pp.

    *: this chapter is also published in the Spanish edition “Fauna Marina Bentónica de la Patagonia Chilena”

Edited books

  1. Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (eds.) (2009): Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia, Nature in Focus, Puerto Montt, 1000 pp.
  2. Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (eds.) (2009): Fauna marina Bentónica de la Patagonia Chilena, Nature in Focus, Puerto Montt, 1000 pp.

Victor Ariel Gallardo (Vice-Chair of Census of Marine Life) about the book:

“The quality of this book sets standards. Identifications have been made and chapters have been authored by a multinational team of highly reputed specialists from equally reputed institutions and most chapters have been written or co-authored by THE world specialist in the particular taxon of the region and have been proof read by at least one other specialist.”

Preface by Sylvia Earle, National Geographic Embassador

Submitted and in preparation

  1. Häussermann, V., Spano, C. Thiel, M. and Lohrmann, K. (in press): First record of the sea anemone Diadumene lineata (Verrill, 1869) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Chilean coast. Spixiana
  2. Schlatter, R., Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (in press): Some like it hot – hummingbirds making use of hotsprings in Chilean Patagonia (Neornithes, Apodiformes, Trochilidae). Spixiana
  3. Jackson DJ., K Mann, V Häussermann, M Schillhabel, C Lüter, E Griesshaber, W Schmahl, G Wörheide (in press): The Magellania venosa biomineralizing proteome: a window into brachiopod shell evolution. Genome Biology and Evolution.
  4. Outeiro L, F Viddi, R Hucke-Gaete, G Försterra, V Häussermann, H Oyarzo, K Kosiel, S Villasante (in press): Using ecosystem services mapping for marine spatial planning in Southern Chile under scenario assessment. Ecosystem Services.
  5. Victor A Gallardo, Vreni Häussermann, Carola Espinoza, Laura Fillinger and Günter Försterra (in review): Giant sulfur bacteria in cold vents expanding into the intertidal in Southern Chile. Marine Biodiversity.
  6. Reyes, P., Försterra, G., McConnell, K. & Häussermann, V. (in review): Under jelly protectorate ̶ fish sheltering in medusae (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) tentacles in Chilean Patagonia. Fish Biology
  7. Häussermann, V., Rodriguez, Estefania and Mercer R. Brugler (in preparation): Two new species of acontiarian anemones from Chilean Patagonia.
  8. Häussermann, V. and Rodriguez, Estefania (in preparation): A new species of actiniid anemone from Chilean Patagonia.
  9. Cairns, S., Breedy, O., Häussermann, V. and Försterra, G. (in preparation): The gorgonians of the Chilean fjord region, with the description of several new species.


A. chilensis is the first species of the genus Actinostola to be described including in situ and in vivo information, 25 m, Comau fjord

Anthothoe chilensis covers a mussle bed which is covered by the gastropod Crepidula sp., 10 m, Comau fjord, South Chile

Professional Presentations:
Selected Conference Talks and Posters (out of 97):

  1. Häussermann, V. y Försterra, G. (1995): "Actiniaria y Corallimorpharia en la área costera de Concepción"; XV Jornada de Ciencias de Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo/Chile
  2. Häussermann, V. (2001): A novel approach to sampling and description of non-scleractinian hexacorals exemplified by Chilean sea anemones; 4th Annual Meeting of the GfBS, Oldenburg; Terra Nostra 01/6, 164
  3. Häussermann, V. (2003): “Sea anemone taxonomy: problems, their consequences and solutions exemplified by Chilean species", VII International Congress on Coelenterate Biology, 6.-13.7.2003, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA, abstract.  
  4. Häussermann, V. (2003): “Distribution patterns of South American and Antarctic sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa)”, IBMANT and ANDEEP meeting, 19.-24.10.2003, Ushuaia, Argentina, abstract.
  5. Försterra. G. & V. Häussermann (2005): In Sight, Still Out of mind! — Coral Banks in Chilean Fjords: Characteristics, Distribution, Threats. 3rd International Symposium on Deep Sea Corals ISDSC 3, November 28-December 2; Miami, Florida, USA, p. 125, abstract.
  6. McCulloch, M., P. Montagna, G. Försterra, G. Mortimer, V. Häussermann & C. Mazzoli (2005). Uranium-series dating and growth rates of the cool-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus from the Chilean fjords. 3rd International Symposium on Deep Sea Corals ISDSC 3, November 28-December 2; Miami, Florida, USA, p. 191; pdf poster.
  7. Häussermann, V. (2005): Biodiversity of Chilean sea anemones: distribution patterns and zoogeographic implications. Annual COLACMAR meeting, May16-20 2005, Viña del Mar, Chile, abstract.
  8. Häussermann, Vreni & Günter Försterra (2006): Quality versus speed – the Chilean fjord region as a case study for the dilemma of optimizing MPA patterns in a complex environment under growing economic pressure. 41st European Marine Biology Symposium EMBS41, Cork, Ireland, September 4-8, 2006, abstract.
  9. Häussermann, V. (2006): Fundamental taxonomic problems in benthic inventories exemplified by Chilean anthozoans and their implications for the NaGISA project. NaGISA World Coference, Kobe, Japan, October 15-18; p. 28, abstract.
  10. Häussermann, V., and Försterra, G. (2007): A hotspot in the cold – outstanding biodiversity in the Chilean Patagonian fjord region. New Frontiers in Marine Science; June 26-29, Baltimore, USA.
  11. Häussermann, V., Försterra, G. (2008): Why wander around in the distance, when good things lie nearby: unexpected biodiversity hot spot in the Chilean Fjord Region. 1st World Congress on Marine Biodiversity, Valencia, Spain, November 11-15.
  12. Günter Försterra, Verena Häussermann, Michelle Marcotte and Josh Biro (2008): Taxonomic tools for assessing marine biodiversity - a new field guide for the Chilean fjords; Congreso de Ciencias del Mar, Vina del Mar, May 26-30, 2008.
  13. Försterra & Häussermann (2008): Fjord regions: where the deep sea comes into reach.  4th International symposium of deep-sea corals, December 1-5, Wellington, New Zealand.
  14. Fiona Bahr, Michelle Marcotte, Axel Hausmann, Josh Biro, Vreni Häussermann, Günter Försterra (2009): The Patagonian Fjord Region: A hotspot that should not leave us cold; Biodiversity Hotspots, Luxemburg, March 26-28.
  15. Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (2009): The Chilean fjord region - A lost case for MPA planning? International Marine Conservation Congress IMCC, Washington D.C., May 20-24, 2009.
  16. Försterra, G. & Häussermann, V. (2009): Typically Special: The Patagonian Fjord Region and its characteristics; Fjord Meeting, Bergen, May 7 and 8, 2009. 
  17. Häussermann, V., Försterra, G. and Brickle, P. (2010): Falkland Islands – an outpost of the Chilean Fjord Region? 45th European Marine Biology Symposium; Edinburgh, Scotia, August 23-27. 
  18. G. Försterra, V. Häussermann , K. Hiscock, E. Plotnek and D. Genter (2011): . Shallow cold water coral reefs in Chilean Patagonia – ecosystems that may be destroyed before they are really known. 9th International Temperate Reefs Symposium; Plymouth, UK, July 4-8. 
  19. Carin Jantzen, Verena Häussermann, Günter Försterra, Jürgen Laudien, Claudio Richter: (2011): The cold water coral Desmophyllum dianthus grows along a pH gradient in the Comau Fjord (Patagonia, Chile). YOUMARE, Bremerhaven, Germany. 07 – 09 September, 2011.
  20. Försterra, G. & Häussermann, V. (2011): Fundamental problems in managing largely unknown diverse marine systems in Chilean Patagonia. 2nd World Congress on Marine Biodiversity; Aberdeen, Scotland, September 26-30. Talk.
  21. Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (2011): MARXAN reversed – Decision support algorithms as tools for improving field work planning: A Chilean example. 2nd International Marine Concervation Congress; Victoria, BC, Canada, May 14-18. Talk.
  22. Försterra, Günter, Vreni Hӓussermann, Christoph Mayr, and Carin Jantzen (2012): Low pH and the role of endolythic algae in CWC; International Symposium on Deep-Sea Corals, Amsterdam, Netherlands, April 1-5, 2012
  23. Christiane Hassenrück, Carin Jantzen, Günter Försterra and Verena Häussermann (2012): Growth rates and skeletal density of Desmophyllum dianthus – effect of association with endolithic algae. YOUMARES 3.0, Lübeck, Germany, September 12-14, 2012
  24. Vreni Häussermann & Günter Försterra: Promotion of MPAs in Chile - lessons learned from the Comau example, International Marine Protected Area congress IMPAC, October 21-27, 2013, Marseille & Corsica, France.
  25. D. Bellhoff, V. Häussermann, G. Försterra, K. McConnell y U. Pörschmann (2013): Señales de alarma de la región de los fiordos chilenos – Evidencias de degradación de biodiversidad y servicios de ecosistema de un estudio del fiordo Comau en el norte de la Patagonia, XXXIII congreso Ciencias del Mar, Mayo 27-30, 2013, Antofagasta, Chile.
  26. Vreni Häussermann, Günter Försterra, David Bellhoff: Diversity, distribution and zoogeography of sea anemones from Chilean Patagonia – a contradiction to Rapoport’s rule? 8th International Coelenterate Meeting, Eilat, Israel, December 1-5, 2013
  27. Häussermann V, G Försterra, D Bellhoff (2014). Filling gaps - species distribution models help to improve the resolution of zoogeographical analysis for Chilean Patagonia. World Congress on Marine Biodiversity, Qingdao, China, October 12-16.
  28. Gottschlich, J Laudien, V Häussermann, G Försterra, J Smith (2014). The impact of changing substrate angles on abundance and diversity of hard bottom communities during primary succession. MARES conference 2014, Olhão, Portugal. November 17-21.
  29. Gottschlich, J Laudien, V Häussermann, G Försterra (2014). Modulation of the intensity of abiotic parameters caused by substratum inclinations and its implication on hard-bottom benthic community structure. YOUMARES conference 2014, Stralsund, Germany. September 10-12.
  30. Henry Goehlich, Jürgen Laudien, Christopher Nowak, Carin Jantzen, Vreni Häussermann, Claudio Richter. “Can specimens of the cold-water coral Desmopyllum dianthus adapt to a changing environment in the Chilean Fjord Region?” 3rd International Marine Conservation Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, August 14-18, 2014
  31. Jantzen C., Laudien J., Nowak C., McConnell KM., Häussermann, V. In situ growth rate of a cold water coral in a natural pH gradient. XXX1V Congreso Ciencias del Mar, Osorno, Chile. May 26-30.
  32. Försterra G., J. Laudien, C. Jantzen, R. Waller, J. Sellanes, K. McConnell, U. Pörschmann, C. Fuentes, P. Muñoz & V. Häussermann (2015). ¿Qué causa la muerte de corales en la Patagonia chilena? – hipótesis sobre la muerte masiva de bancos de Desmophyllum dianthus. XXXV Congreso Ciencias del Mar, Coquimbo Mayo 25-29 2015.
  33. Häussermann V, Försterra G, Burrows M, Gorny M & Bellhoff D (2015): Llenando los espacios blancos – modelos de distribución de especies ayudan a mejorar la resolución de análisis zoogeográficos y de áreas marinas protegidas. XXXV Congreso Ciencias del Mar, Coquimbo Mayo 25-29 2015.
  34. Försterra G, V Häussermann, J Laudien, R Waller, A Addamo, M Burchell (2016): WANTED: Your opinion how to explain unresolved mass mortalities of cold-water corals in shallow waters of Chilean Patagonia. 6th International Deep Sea Coral Symposium (September 2016).

Unpublished reports:

  1. G. Försterra, V. Häussermann, R. Fitzek y Yany G. (2004, version revisada 10.1.2006): Propuesta para el establecimiento de un parque marino en los fiordos Comau y Renihue (incluyendo Quintupeu, Cahuelmo y la isla Lilihuapi); pdf
  2. V. Häussermann, G. Försterra, A. Wehrmann, M. Thiel, M. Schrödl y E. Clasing (2004): Primer workshop en la Estacion Cientifica Huinay: los fiordos chilenos; pdf: English, Spanish, German
  3. Försterra, Günter, Häussermann, Verena (2007): Impactos relacionados con la construccion de una carretera a lo largo de los fiordos Comau y Reñihué.

Newsletter contributions:

  1. Försterra, G. & Häussermann, V (2004): Chilean fjords – an endangered paradise. Global Marine Environment 1: 12-13
  2. Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (2004): Chilean sea anemones – forgotten flowers of the sea. Global Marine Environment 1: 16-17
  3. Försterra, G. & Häussermann, V (2004): Die chilenischen Fjorde - ein bedrohtes Paradies. GfBS newsletter 13: 24-26, 57
  4. Häussermann, V. & Försterra, G. (2004): Die chilenischen Seeanemonen - vergessene Blumen des Meeres. GfBS newsletter 13: 31-33, 57
  5. Försterra, G., Häussermann, V. & Gerard P. Foley Jr. (in press): Adding pieces to a complex puzzle – discovering the benthic life in the channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia. Global Marine Environment 3.
  6. Hajdu, E., Willenz, P., Lôbo-Hajdu, G., Desqueyroux-Faundez, R., Carvalho, M., Häussermann, V., Försterra, G. and M. Scuteri (2005): Marine sponges biodiversity. Project AMBARC-diving and wading in South America. Global Marine Environment 4: 28-29.
  7. Willenz, P., Häussermann, V., Försterra, G., Schrödl, M., Melzer, R., Atwood, L. and Jorda, C. (2007): Finding more pieces of the Chilean puzzle. Global Marine Environment 5: 26-29.

Invited Talks: since 1998, more than 100 talks in 13 countries

Anemonia alicemartinae on rhizom of Lessonia trabeculata

unidentified Acontiaria from the fiord region of South Chile

University Activities:

Scientific expeditions:

Patagonia: The final frontier
These are the voyages of the Huinay science team
Its 15 year mission
To explore strange new worlds
To seek out new species and new communities
To boldly dive where no human has dived before...

1) Expeditions of G. Försterra and V. Häussermann to collect anthozoans between 1997 and 2002:

Field laboratory in the Atacama Desert, North Chile (expedition 1997/98 for the diploma thesis)

Expeditions to Chilean Patagonia are physically as well as psychologically very challenging for the participating scientists: Huinay Fiordos 3 expedition to Central Patagonia (2006)

2) Expeditions organised as directors of the Huinay Scientific Field Station (since 2002):

Sea lions near Caleta Gonzalo, South Chile (Otaria flavescens)

Peale's dolphin / delfín austral (Lagenorhynchus australis)


Professional Affiliations:
Co-Founder of "Fjord Research Network" (2004)
Founder of the group of researchers „Young Anthozoologists“ (2003); www.anthozoa.com
Sociedad de Ciencias del Mar de Chile (since 2015)

Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik (GfBS: Society for Biological Systematics, 2001-2014)
Verein deutscher Biologen (VdBiol: Society of German Biologists, 2000-2014) 
Census Of Marine Life (COML, since 2002)

Deutscher Akademikerinnen Bund (DAB: German Female Academics, 2002-2010)

WWF (since 1989)
Pro Regenwald (1997-2004)
Greenpeace (1993-1997)

Trekking, triathlon, sea-kayaking, ski-touring, nature and underwater photography

Further links:  
Webpage of Günter Försterra
Huinay Scientific Field Station, Chile
Census Of Marine Life (COML)
Sea anemone database
Underwater Field guide to Ross Island and McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

Diving in Dichato, Central Chile (1997)

Preparing the next dive; Isla Refugio, South Chile (2001)

Some pictures taken in Chile:

 Tide-pooling on Chiloé Island 

For not disturbing and hurting the sea anemones, it is often easier to collect them with their substratum; Dichato, Central Chile

Caves can only be sampled by SCUBA diving; Caleta Gonzalo, 18m, South Chile

Sea anemones seem to have become more abundant and often dominate large areas; 18 m, Isla Laitec, South Chile

This - still unidentified - species of sea anemone is spending half of its time out of the water, hanging below intertidal boulders; Quellón, South Chile 

Large assemblages of azooxanthellate Scleractinia can be found in shallow waters of South Chilean fiords; Desmophyllum dianthus (larger corals) and Caryophyllia sp. (small corals); 20-30 m, Caleta Gonzalo, South Chile

Impressive accumulation of azooxanthellate Scleractinia, mainly Desmophyllum dianthus, under an overhang; Puyuhuapi, 25 m, South Chile 

...for more pictures of corals click here

Outside of the protected fiords, benthic communities are often dominated by sponges; Bahía TicToc, 28 m, South Chile

A colourful community of cnidarians and sponges; Isla Laitec, 25 m

Curious sea lions (Otaria flavescens) are common visitors of divers

The coast at Los Molinos near Valdivia, South Chile

The coast at Pan de Azucar, North Chile

Some conspicious Chilean invertebrates:

Actinostola chilensis surrounded by giant brachiopod Magellania venosa; Caleta Gonzalo, 25 m, South Chile

Boloceropsis platei hatches its young to overcome critical body size

The colour of the corallimorpharian Corynactis carnea is very variable, but always brilliant; Chome, 15 m, Central Chile

Alcyonium sp.; Caleta Gonzalo, 25 m, South Chile

Colony of large zoantharians: Parazoanthus sp.; Lenca, 15 m, South Chile

In Central Chile, the gorgonian  Lophogorgia platyclados is quite common; Dichato; 13 m 

Lophogorgia platyclados surrounded by the sea anemone Antholoba achates; cave ceiling , Dichayto, 5 m

A very unusual sea anemone, Dactylanthus antarcticus, feeding on gorgonians Primnoella sp. (photograph Lloyd Peck); South Chile

Hydrozoan (probably Hybocodon prolifer) on a yellow sponge; Caleta Gonzalo, 20 m, South Chile

The nudibranch Tritonia odhneri; Quellón, 15 m, South Chile

A crab eating an actinian; Quellón, 22m, South Chile

A camouflaged crab; Bahía TicToc, 20 m, South Chile

The sea spider Lithodes santolla or centolla is a favourite Chilean sea-food; surrounded by the zoantharian Epizoanthus sp.; Puerto Cisnes, 26 m; South Chile

Field of giant ascidians-Pyura praeputialis; Antofagasta, 13 m, North Chile

Colony of bryozoans; Puerto Cisnes, 22 m; and Caleta Gonzalo, 24 m; both South Chile 

Tentacle crown of a sea cucumber; Caleta Gonzalo, 20 m, South Chile

Many species of sea stars can be found in the fiord region; Caleta Gonzalo, 18 m, South Chile

Sea stars are often found in high densities on the rocky ground; Lenca, 12 m, South Chile...

...and they can become quite large...; bahía Tic Toc, 10 m, South Chile

See urchin surrounded by juveniles and Anthothoe chilensis; Caleta Gonzalo, 15 m, South Chile

Several species of Ophiuroida (Lenca, 38m; Isla Refugio, 28 m) can be found in South Chilean fiords


Most recent update: 15th of November 2016